GitLab Workhorse is a smart reverse proxy for GitLab. It handles long HTTP requests, such as:
- File downloads.
- File uploads.
- Git pushes and pulls.
- Git archive downloads.
Workhorse itself is not a feature, but several features in GitLab would not work efficiently without Workhorse.
At a first glance, Workhorse appears to be just a pipeline for processing HTTP streams to reduce the amount of logic in your Ruby on Rails controller. However, don’t treat it that way. Engineers trying to offload a feature to Workhorse often find it takes more work than originally anticipated:
- It’s a new programming language, and only a few engineers at GitLab are Go developers.
- Workhorse has demanding requirements:
- It’s stateless.
- Memory and disk usage must be kept under tight control.
- The request should not be slowed down in the process.
We suggest adding new features only if absolutely necessary and no other options exist. Splitting a feature between the Rails codebase and Workhorse is a deliberate choice to introduce technical debt. It adds complexity to the system, and coupling between the two components:
- Building features using Workhorse has a considerable complexity cost, so you should prefer designs based on Rails requests and Sidekiq jobs.
- Even when using Rails-and-Sidekiq is more work than using Rails-and-Workhorse, Rails-and-Sidekiq is easier to maintain in the long term. Workhorse is unique to GitLab, while Rails-and-Sidekiq is an industry standard.
- For global behaviors around web requests, consider using a Rack middleware instead of Workhorse.
- Generally speaking, use Rails-and-Workhorse only if the HTTP client expects behavior reasonable to implement in Rails, like long requests.
One order of magnitude exists between Workhorse and Puma RAM usage. Having a connection open for longer than milliseconds is problematic due to the amount of RAM it monopolizes after it reaches the Ruby on Rails controller. We’ve identified two classes of long requests: data transfers and HTTP long polling. Some examples:
- Uploading or downloading an artifact.
- A CI runner waiting for a new job.
With the rise of cloud-native installations, Workhorse’s feature set was extended to add object storage direct-upload. This change removed the need for the shared Network File System (NFS) drives.
If you still think we should add a new feature to Workhorse, open an issue for the Workhorse maintainers and explain:
- What you want to implement.
- Why it can’t be implemented in our Ruby codebase.
The Workhorse maintainers can help you assess the situation.
- In 2020,
@nolithpresented the talk “Speed up the monolith. Building a smart reverse proxy in Go” at FOSDEM. The talk includes more details on the history of Workhorse and the NFS removal.
- The uploads development documentation contains the most common use cases for adding a new type of upload.