Reviewing GitLab Runner

This document contains rules and suggestions for GitLab Runner project reviewers.

Reviewing tests coverage reports

In the GitLab Runner project, we have a lot of code. Unfortunately, the code coverage is not comprehensive. Currently (early 2019), the coverage is on the level of ~55%.

While adding tests to a legacy code is a hard task, we should ensure that new code that is being added to the project has good tests coverage. Code reviewers are encouraged to look on the coverage reports and ensure new code is covered.

We should aim for as much test coverage for new code as possible. Defining the level of required coverage for a specific change is left for the reviewer judgment. Sometimes 100% coverage will be something simple to achieve. Sometimes adding code with only 20% of the coverage will be realistic and will ensure that the most important things are being tested. Dear reviewer - chose wisely :)

Getting back to the technical details…

The GitLab Runner CI/CD pipeline helps us here and provides the coverage reports in HTML format, for tests executed in regular (count) and race (atomic) modes.

There are two places where test coverage reports can be seen. For:

Test coverage report from S3

This report has a long-term life but, because it uses the gitlab-runners-download S3 bucket, it’s available only for contributions made directly to https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-runner. It is also available for all jobs started from main branch (so mostly Merge Requests merges) and for all tagged releases.

To open the report:

  1. Find the Pipeline related to the change that we want to review. It may be the latest Pipeline for the Merge Requests or a Pipeline for the tag. For example, we can look at this one: https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-runner/pipelines/48686952, which released the v11.8.0 version of GitLab Runner.

  2. In the pipeline, find the stable S3 (for tagged releases), bleeding edge S3 (for main and RC tagged releases), or development S3 (for regular commits) job which should be present at the release stage. In our example pipeline, it will be: https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-runner/-/jobs/165757556.

  3. At the end of the job’s log, we should see a line like:

    ==> Download index file: https://gitlab-runner-downloads.s3.amazonaws.com/latest/index.html
    

    Because when this job was triggered, and v11.8.0 was also the latest release, we see a link to the latest version bucket. The problem with latest is that the content there changes when new stable/patch versions are released.

    Each pipeline also creates a deployment for a specific reference (a branch name or a tag name). Several lines above we can see:

    ==> Download index file: https://gitlab-runner-downloads.s3.amazonaws.com/v11.8.0/index.html
    

    This URL points to a bucket, that should not be changed in the future. For a bleeding edge S3 started from a main branch, the URL should look like https://gitlab-runner-downloads.s3.amazonaws.com/main/index.html (which obviously also changes over time) and for the one started from a RC tag, it should look like https://gitlab-runner-downloads.s3.amazonaws.com/v11.8.0-rc1/index.html. For the development S3 job, started from a regular commit (mostly tracked within a Merge Request), the URL should look like https://gitlab-runner-downloads.s3.amazonaws.com/mask-trace/index.html. In this case the mask-trace is the name of the branch, which was used as Merge Request source.

  4. Open the S3 link gathered from the job’s log. Following our example, let’s open the https://gitlab-runner-downloads.s3.amazonaws.com/v11.8.0/index.html one. We can see here several files that are published as part of the release. We’re interested in the content of the coverage/ directory.

    In this directory, we can see three files with .race. as part of the filename, and three similar files but with .regular. as part of the filename. The files are tracking output of go test command executed with coverage options. The .race. files contain sources and reports for tests started with -race flag, while the .regular. files are sources and reports for tests started without this option.

    For those who are interested in details, the -race tests are using atomic coverage mode, while the standard tests are using count coverage mode.

    For our case, the coverage/coverprofile.regular.html file is what we should look at. .race. tests can fail in race condition situations (this is why we’re executing them) and currently we have several of them that are constantly failing. This means that the coverage profile may not be full.

    The .regular. tests, instead, should give us the full overview of what’s tested inside of our code. To inspect them:

  5. Open wanted report HTML page. As stated above, coverage/coverprofile.regular.html is what we’re interested in, so using our initial example we should open the https://gitlab-runner-downloads.s3.amazonaws.com/v11.8.0/coverage/coverprofile.regular.html#file0 file.

  6. At this moment, we can see a file browser showing test coverage details. In the drop-down select at the top, we can now start choosing files related to the reviewed modification and check how the coverage is changing.

Test coverage report from job artifact

As written above, reports hosted on S3 buckets are available only for pipelines started directly from https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-runner project. But many of the contributions that the reviewers are handling are contributions coming from community forks.

In this case, we have the same two types of reports - .regular. and .race. - generated in exactly same way. The only difference is the place where they can be found and their lifespan. Reports are saved as job artifacts so they can be next passed to the release stage). There is a 7 day expiration time set on them. So when reviewing a change that executed its pipeline more than a week before, the report will be unavailable. But, a new pipeline execution, even without changes in the code, will resolve the problem.

To view a code coverage report for a merge request:

  1. In the merge request’s Overview tab, under the pipeline result, click on View exposed artifact to expand the section.
  2. Click on Code Coverage.
  3. Use the artifact browser to navigate to the out/coverage/ directory. For example, https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-runner/-/jobs/172824578/artifacts/browse/out/coverage/. This directory will always contain six files - three .race. files and three .regular. files, as explained in the S3 coverage report strategy.

    For reviewing changes, we’re mostly interested in looking at the .regular. HTML report (the coverprofile.regular.html file). As you can see, all files are visible as external links, so for our example we will open https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-runner/-/jobs/172824578/artifacts/file/out/coverage/coverprofile.regular.html which will redirect us to https://gitlab-org.gitlab.io/-/gitlab-runner/-/jobs/172824578/artifacts/out/coverage/coverprofile.regular.html where the report is stored.

  4. At this moment, we can see the same file browser with coverage details as we seen with the S3 source. We can do the same. The only difference is that it will disappear in maximum of 7 days.

Reviewing the merge request title

Because we generate CHANGELOG.md entries from the merge request titles, making sure that the title is valid and informative is a part of the reviewer and maintainer’s responsibilities.

Before merging a merge request, check the title and update it if you think it will not be clear in the CHANGELOG.md file. Keep in mind that the changelog will have only this one line, without the merge request description, discussion or diff that provide more context.

As an example, look at https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab-runner/-/merge_requests/1812 and compare:

  • yml to yaml - which is the original title and was added to changelog with our script,
  • Fix values.yaml file name in documentation - which is what I’ve updated it to in the changelog.

What will yml to yaml tell a GitLab Runner administrator if they review the changelog before updating to a newer version? Does it show the risks behind the update, the implemented behavior changes, a new behavior/features that were added? Keep these questions in mind when reviewing the merge request and its title.

Contributors may not be aware of the above information, and that their titles may not match our requirements. Try to educate the contributor about this.

In the end, it’s your responsibility to verify and update the title before the merge request is merged.

Reviewing the merge request labels

We use labels assigned to merge requests to group changelog entries in different groups and define some special features of individual entries.

For changelog generation we’re using our own Changelog generator. The tool is using a configuration file that is committed to the GitLab Runner repository.

There are few important things that the reviewer should know about Changelog generator:

  • GitLab Changelog analyzes merge request labels in the order in which label_matchers are defined. First matched scope is used for the analyzed merge request.

    For example, if there would be two merge request - first one containing labels security and bug, second one containing only the bug label - and there would be three matchers defined in this order: [security, bug] -> [security] -> [bug], then the first merge request would be added to the scope matched by [security, bug] (so the first defined on the list) and the second merge request would be added to the scope matched by [bug] (so the last defined scope on the list).

  • Merge requests labeled with labels defined at authorship_labels will be added to the changelog with the author’s username added at the end. All authorship_labels labels need to be added to the merge request for it to be marked in this way.

  • Merge requests labeled with labels defined at skip_changelog_labels will be skipped in the changelog. All skip_changelog_labels labels need to be added to the merge request for it to be skipped.

  • Merge request not matching any of the defined label_matchers are added to the Other changes scope bucket.

Having all of that in mind, please follow these few rules when merging the merge request:

  • Any merge request related to how GitLab Runner or its parts are distributed should be labeled with the runner-distribution label.

  • Any merge request that touches security - no matter if it’s a new feature or a bug fix - should have the security label. All merge requests that are not feature::addition will be then added to the security scope.

  • Any bug fix merge request should have the bug label.

  • In most merge requests that are not documentation update only or explicitly a bug fix, make sure that one of the feature:: or tooling:: labels is added. This will help us sort the changelog entries properly.

  • documentation label is added automatically when the Technical Writing review is done. Even when the merge request updates more than only documentation. If the merge request has only the documentation label and doesn’t have any other label matching any of the defined label_matchers - double check that the merge request updates the documentation only. Otherwise use one of the specific labels matching the type of the change that is being added!

  • When you revert a change that was merged during the same release cycle, label the original merge request and the revert one with labels defined in skip_changelog_labels. This will reduce the manual work that release manager needs to do when preparing the release. We should not add entries about adding a change and reverting the change if both events happened in the same version.

    If the revert merge request reverts something, that was merged to an already release version of GitLab Runner, just make sure to label it with the right scope labels. In that case we want to mark the revert in the changelog.

  • Please also take a moment to read through Engineering metrics data classification page, which gives some guidance about when certain labels should be used.

Summary

Dear reviewer, you’ve got your sword. Now go fight with the dragons!