GitLab Markdown

This Markdown guide is valid only for GitLab’s internal Markdown rendering system for entries and files. It is not valid for the GitLab documentation website or GitLab’s main website, as they both use Kramdown as their Markdown engine. The documentation website uses an extended Kramdown gem, GitLab Kramdown. Consult the GitLab Kramdown Guide for a complete Kramdown reference.

Note: We encourage you to view this document as rendered by GitLab itself.

GitLab Flavored Markdown (GFM)

GitLab uses “GitLab Flavored Markdown” (GFM). It extends the CommonMark specification (which is based on standard Markdown) in several ways to add additional useful functionality. It was inspired by GitHub Flavored Markdown.

You can use GFM in the following areas:

  • Comments
  • Issues
  • Merge requests
  • Milestones
  • Snippets (the snippet must be named with a .md extension)
  • Wiki pages
  • Markdown documents inside repositories
  • Epics

You can also use other rich text files in GitLab. You might have to install a dependency to do so. Please see the gitlab-markup gem project for more information.

Transition from Redcarpet to CommonMark

Since 11.1, GitLab uses the CommonMark Ruby Library for Markdown processing of all new issues, merge requests, comments, and other Markdown content in the GitLab system. Since 11.3, wiki pages and Markdown files (*.md) in repositories are also processed with CommonMark. As of 11.8, the Redcarpet Ruby library has been removed and all issues and comments, including those from pre-11.1, are now processed using the CommonMark Ruby Library.

The documentation website had its Markdown engine migrated from Redcarpet to Kramdown in October 2018.

You may have older issues, merge requests, or Markdown documents in your repository that were written using some of the nuances of GitLab’s RedCarpet version of Markdown. Since CommonMark uses slightly stricter syntax, these documents might now appear a little differently since we have transitioned to CommonMark.

For example, numbered lists with nested lists may render incorrectly:

1. Chocolate
  - dark
  - milk

To correct their rendering, add a space to each nested item to align the - with the first character of the top list item (C in this case):

1. Chocolate
   - dark
   - milk
  1. Chocolate
    • dark
    • milk
Note: We flag any significant differences between Redcarpet and CommonMark Markdown in this document.

If you have a large volume of Markdown files, it can be tedious to determine if they display correctly or not. You can use the diff_redcarpet_cmark tool (not an officially supported product) to generate a list of files and the differences between how RedCarpet and CommonMark render the files. It gives an indication if anything needs to be changed - often nothing needs to change.

GFM extends standard Markdown

GitLab makes full use of the standard (CommonMark) formatting, but also includes additional functionality useful for GitLab users.

It makes use of new Markdown features, not found in standard Markdown:

It also has extended Markdown features, without changing how standard Markdown is used:

Standard Markdown Extended Markdown in GitLab
blockquotes multi-line blockquotes
code blocks colored code and syntax highlighting
emphasis multiple underscores in words
headers linkable Header IDs
images embedded videos and audio
line breaks more line break control
links automatically linking URLs

New GFM Markdown extensions

Colors

If this is not rendered correctly, view it in GitLab itself.

It’s possible to have color written in HEX, RGB, or HSL format rendered with a color indicator.

Supported formats (named colors are not supported):

  • HEX: `#RGB[A]` or `#RRGGBB[AA]`
  • RGB: `RGB[A](R, G, B[, A])`
  • HSL: `HSL[A](H, S, L[, A])`

Color written inside backticks is followed by a color “chip”:

- `#F00`
- `#F00A`
- `#FF0000`
- `#FF0000AA`
- `RGB(0,255,0)`
- `RGB(0%,100%,0%)`
- `RGBA(0,255,0,0.3)`
- `HSL(540,70%,50%)`
- `HSLA(540,70%,50%,0.3)`
  • #F00
  • #F00A
  • #FF0000
  • #FF0000AA
  • RGB(0,255,0)
  • RGB(0%,100%,0%)
  • RGBA(0,255,0,0.3)
  • HSL(540,70%,50%)
  • HSLA(540,70%,50%,0.3)

Diagrams and flowcharts

It’s possible to generate diagrams and flowcharts from text in GitLab using Mermaid or PlantUML.

Mermaid

Introduced in GitLab 10.3.

Visit the official page for more details. If you’re new to using Mermaid or need help identifying issues in your Mermaid code, the Mermaid Live Editor is a helpful tool for creating and resolving issues within Mermaid diagrams.

In order to generate a diagram or flowchart, you should write your text inside the mermaid block:

```mermaid
graph TD;
  A-->B;
  A-->C;
  B-->D;
  C-->D;
```
graph TD; A-->B; A-->C; B-->D; C-->D;

Subgraphs can also be included:

```mermaid
graph TB

  SubGraph1 --> SubGraph1Flow
  subgraph "SubGraph 1 Flow"
  SubGraph1Flow(SubNode 1)
  SubGraph1Flow -- Choice1 --> DoChoice1
  SubGraph1Flow -- Choice2 --> DoChoice2
  end

  subgraph "Main Graph"
  Node1[Node 1] --> Node2[Node 2]
  Node2 --> SubGraph1[Jump to SubGraph1]
  SubGraph1 --> FinalThing[Final Thing]
end
```
graph TB SubGraph1 --> SubGraph1Flow subgraph "SubGraph 1 Flow" SubGraph1Flow(SubNode 1) SubGraph1Flow -- Choice1 --> DoChoice1 SubGraph1Flow -- Choice2 --> DoChoice2 end subgraph "Main Graph" Node1[Node 1] --> Node2[Node 2] Node2 --> SubGraph1[Jump to SubGraph1] SubGraph1 --> FinalThing[Final Thing] end

PlantUML

To make PlantUML available in GitLab, a GitLab administrator needs to enable it first. Read more in PlantUML & GitLab.

Emoji

If this is not rendered correctly, view it in GitLab itself.

Sometimes you want to :monkey: around a bit and add some :star2: to your :speech_balloon:. Well we have a gift for you:

:zap: You can use emoji anywhere GFM is supported. :v:

You can use it to point out a :bug: or warn about :speak_no_evil: patches. And if someone improves your really :snail: code, send them some :birthday:. People will :heart: you for that.

If you're new to this, don't be :fearful:. You can join the emoji :family:. All you need to do is to look up one of the supported codes.

Consult the [Emoji Cheat Sheet](https://www.emojicopy.com) for a list of all supported emoji codes. :thumbsup:

Sometimes you want to around a bit and add some to your . Well we have a gift for you:

You can use emoji anywhere GFM is supported.

You can use it to point out a or warn about patches. And if someone improves your really code, send them some . People will you for that.

If you’re new to this, don’t be . You can join the emoji . All you need to do is to look up one of the supported codes.

Consult the Emoji Cheat Sheet for a list of all supported emoji codes.

Note: The emoji example above uses hard-coded images for this documentation. The emoji, when rendered within GitLab, may appear different depending on the OS and browser used.

Most emoji are natively supported on macOS, Windows, iOS, Android, and fall back on image-based emoji where there is no support.

Note: On Linux, you can download Noto Color Emoji to get full native emoji support. Ubuntu 18.04 (like many modern Linux distributions) has this font installed by default.

Front matter

Introduced in GitLab 11.6.

Front matter is metadata included at the beginning of a Markdown document, preceding its content. This data can be used by static site generators such as Jekyll, Hugo, and many other applications.

When you view a Markdown file rendered by GitLab, any front matter is displayed as-is, in a box at the top of the document, before the rendered HTML content. To view an example, you can toggle between the source and rendered version of a GitLab documentation file.

In GitLab, front matter is only used in Markdown files and wiki pages, not the other places where Markdown formatting is supported. It must be at the very top of the document and must be between delimiters, as explained below.

The following delimiters are supported:

  • YAML (---):

    ---
    title: About Front Matter
    example:
    language: yaml
    ---
    
  • TOML (+++):

    +++
    title = "About Front Matter"
    [example]
    language = "toml"
    +++
    
  • JSON (;;;):

    ;;;
    {
      "title": "About Front Matter"
      "example": {
        "language": "json"
      }
    }
    ;;;
    

Other languages are supported by adding a specifier to any of the existing delimiters. For example:

---php
$title = "About Front Matter";
$example = array(
  'language' => "php",
);
---

Inline diff

If this is not rendered correctly, view it in GitLab itself.

With inline diff tags you can display {+ additions +} or [- deletions -].

The wrapping tags can be either curly braces or square brackets:

- {+ addition 1 +}
- [+ addition 2 +]
- {- deletion 3 -}
- [- deletion 4 -]

Inline diff as rendered by GitLab's interface


However, the wrapping tags can’t be mixed:

- {+ addition +]
- [+ addition +}
- {- deletion -]
- [- deletion -}

If your diff includes words in `code` font, make sure to escape each backtick ` with a backslash \, otherwise the diff highlight don’t render correctly:

- {+ Just regular text +}
- {+ Text with `backticks` inside +}
- {+ Text with escaped \`backticks\` inside +}

Inline diff with mixed formatting, as rendered by GitLab's interface

Math

If this is not rendered correctly, view it in GitLab itself.

It’s possible to have math written with LaTeX syntax rendered using KaTeX.

Math written between dollar signs $ are rendered inline with the text. Math written inside a code block with the language declared as math, are rendered on a separate line:

This math is inline $`a^2+b^2=c^2`$.

This is on a separate line

```math
a^2+b^2=c^2
```

This math is inline $a^2+b^2=c^2$.

This is on a separate line

a^2+b^2=c^2

Be advised that KaTeX only supports a subset of LaTeX.

Note: This also works for the Asciidoctor :stem: latexmath. For details see the Asciidoctor user manual.

Special GitLab references

GFM recognizes special GitLab related references. For example, you can reference an issue, a commit, a team member, or even the whole team within a project. GFM turns that reference into a link so you can navigate between them.

Additionally, GFM recognizes certain cross-project references and also has a shorthand version to reference other projects from the same namespace.

GFM recognizes the following:

references input cross-project reference shortcut within same namespace
specific user @user_name    
specific group @group_name    
entire team @all    
project namespace/project>    
issue #123 namespace/project#123 project#123
merge request !123 namespace/project!123 project!123
snippet $123 namespace/project$123 project$123
epic &123 group1/subgroup&123  
label by ID ~123 namespace/project~123 project~123
one-word label by name ~bug namespace/project~bug project~bug
multi-word label by name ~"feature request" namespace/project~"feature request" project~"feature request"
scoped label by name ~"priority::high" namespace/project~"priority::high" project~"priority::high"
project milestone by ID %123 namespace/project%123 project%123
one-word milestone by name %v1.23 namespace/project%v1.23 project%v1.23
multi-word milestone by name %"release candidate" namespace/project%"release candidate" project%"release candidate"
specific commit 9ba12248 namespace/project@9ba12248 project@9ba12248
commit range comparison 9ba12248...b19a04f5 namespace/project@9ba12248...b19a04f5 project@9ba12248...b19a04f5
repository file references [README](doc/README)    
repository file line references [README](doc/README#L13)    
alert ^alert#123 namespace/project^alert#123 project^alert#123

For example, referencing an issue by using #123 will format the output as a link to issue number 123 with text #123. Likewise, a link to issue number 123 will be recognized and formatted with text #123.

In addition to this, links to some objects are also recognized and formatted. Some examples of these are:

  • Comments on issues: "https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab/-/issues/1234#note_101075757", which are rendered as #1234 (note1)
  • The issues designs tab: "https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab/-/issues/1234/designs", which are rendered as #1234 (designs).
  • Links to individual designs: "https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab/-/issues/1234/designs/layout.png", which are rendered as #1234[layout.png].

Task lists

If this is not rendered correctly, view it in GitLab itself.

You can add task lists anywhere Markdown is supported, but you can only “click” to toggle the boxes if they are in issues, merge requests, or comments. In other places you must edit the Markdown manually to change the status by adding or removing an x within the square brackets.

To create a task list, add a specially-formatted Markdown list. You can use either unordered or ordered lists:

- [x] Completed task
- [ ] Incomplete task
  - [ ] Sub-task 1
  - [x] Sub-task 2
  - [ ] Sub-task 3

1. [x] Completed task
1. [ ] Incomplete task
   1. [ ] Sub-task 1
   1. [x] Sub-task 2

A task list as rendered by GitLab's interface

Table of contents

You can add a table of contents to a Markdown file, wiki page, or issue/merge request description, by adding the tag [[_TOC_]] on its own line. It appears as an unordered list that links to the various headers.

This is an intro sentence to my Wiki page.

[[_TOC_]]

## My first heading

First section content.

## My second heading

Second section content.

Preview of an auto-generated TOC in a Wiki

Wiki-specific Markdown

The following examples show how links inside wikis behave.

A link which just includes the slug for a page points to that page, at the base level of the wiki.

This snippet would link to a documentation page at the root of your wiki:

[Link to Documentation](documentation)

Links with a file extension point to that file, relative to the current page.

If the snippet below was placed on a page at <your_wiki>/documentation/related, it would link to <your_wiki>/documentation/file.md:

[Link to File](file.md)

A link can be constructed relative to the current wiki page using ./<page>, ../<page>, and so on.

If this snippet was placed on a page at <your_wiki>/documentation/main, it would link to <your_wiki>/documentation/related:

[Link to Related Page](./related)

If this snippet was placed on a page at <your_wiki>/documentation/related/content, it would link to <your_wiki>/documentation/main:

[Link to Related Page](../main)

If this snippet was placed on a page at <your_wiki>/documentation/main, it would link to <your_wiki>/documentation/related.md:

[Link to Related Page](./related.md)

If this snippet was placed on a page at <your_wiki>/documentation/related/content, it would link to <your_wiki>/documentation/main.md:

[Link to Related Page](../main.md)

A link starting with a / is relative to the wiki root.

This snippet links to <wiki_root>/documentation:

[Link to Related Page](/documentation)

This snippet links to <wiki_root>/miscellaneous.md:

[Link to Related Page](/miscellaneous.md)

Embedding metrics in GitLab Flavored Markdown

Metric charts can be embedded within GitLab Flavored Markdown. See Embedding Metrics within GitLab flavored Markdown for more details.

Standard Markdown and extensions in GitLab

All standard Markdown formatting should work as expected within GitLab. Some standard functionality is extended with additional features, without affecting the standard usage. If a functionality is extended, the new option is listed as a sub-section.

Blockquotes

Blockquotes are useful to highlight information, such as a side-note. It’s generated by starting the lines of the blockquote with >:

> Blockquotes are very handy to emulate reply text.
> This line is part of the same quote.

Quote break.

> This is a very long line that is still quoted properly when it wraps. Oh boy let's keep writing to make sure this is long enough to actually wrap for everyone. Oh, you can *put* **Markdown** into a blockquote.

Blockquotes are very handy to emulate reply text. This line is part of the same quote.

Quote break.

This is a very long line that is still quoted properly when it wraps. Oh boy let’s keep writing to make sure this is long enough to actually wrap for everyone. Oh, you can put Markdown into a blockquote.

Multiline blockquote

If this is not rendered correctly, view it in GitLab itself.

GFM extends the standard Markdown standard by also supporting multi-line blockquotes fenced by >>>:

>>>
If you paste a message from somewhere else

that spans multiple lines,

you can quote that without having to manually prepend `>` to every line!
>>>

If you paste a message from somewhere else

that spans multiple lines,

you can quote that without having to manually prepend > to every line!

Code spans and blocks

You can highlight anything that should be viewed as code and not simple text.

Simple inline code is highlighted with single backticks `:

Inline `code` has `back-ticks around` it.

Inline code has back-ticks around it.


Similarly, a whole block of code can be fenced with triple backticks (```), triple tildes (~~~), or indented 4 or more spaces to achieve a similar effect for a larger body of code.

```python
def function():
    #indenting works just fine in the fenced code block
    s = "Python code"
    print s
```

    Using 4 spaces
    is like using
    3-backtick fences.
~~~
Tildes are OK too.
~~~

The three examples above render as:

def function():
    #indenting works just fine in the fenced code block
    s = "Python code"
    print s
Using 4 spaces
is like using
3-backtick fences.
Tildes are OK too.

Colored code and syntax highlighting

If this is not rendered correctly, view it in GitLab itself.

GitLab uses the Rouge Ruby library for more colorful syntax highlighting in code blocks. For a list of supported languages visit the Rouge project wiki. Syntax highlighting is only supported in code blocks, so it’s not possible to highlight code when it’s inline.

Blocks of code are fenced by lines with three back-ticks (```) or three tildes (~~~), and have the language identified at the end of the first fence:

```javascript
var s = "JavaScript syntax highlighting";
alert(s);
```

```python
def function():
    #indenting works just fine in the fenced code block
    s = "Python syntax highlighting"
    print s
```

```ruby
require 'redcarpet'
markdown = Redcarpet.new("Hello World!")
puts markdown.to_html
```

```
No language indicated, so no syntax highlighting.
s = "There is no highlighting for this."
But let's throw in a <b>tag</b>.
```

The four examples above render as:

var s = "JavaScript syntax highlighting";
alert(s);
def function():
    #indenting works just fine in the fenced code block
    s = "Python syntax highlighting"
    print s
require 'redcarpet'
markdown = Redcarpet.new("Hello World!")
puts markdown.to_html
No language indicated, so no syntax highlighting.
s = "There is no highlighting for this."
But let's throw in a <b>tag</b>.

Emphasis

There are multiple ways to emphasize text in Markdown. You can italicize, bold, strikethrough, as well as combine these emphasis styles together.

Examples:

Emphasis, aka italics, with *asterisks* or _underscores_.

Strong emphasis, aka bold, with double **asterisks** or __underscores__.

Combined emphasis with **asterisks and _underscores_**.

Strikethrough uses two tildes. ~~Scratch this.~~

Emphasis, aka italics, with asterisks or underscores.

Strong emphasis, aka bold, with double asterisks or underscores.

Combined emphasis with asterisks and underscores.

Strikethrough uses two tildes. Scratch this.

Note: Strikethrough is not part of the core Markdown standard, but is part of GFM.

Multiple underscores in words and mid-word emphasis

If this is not rendered correctly, view it in GitLab itself.

It’s not usually useful to italicize just part of a word, especially when you’re dealing with code and names that often appear with multiple underscores. As a result, GFM extends the standard Markdown standard by ignoring multiple underlines in words, to allow better rendering of Markdown documents discussing code:

perform_complicated_task

do_this_and_do_that_and_another_thing

but_emphasis is_desired _here_

perform_complicated_task

do_this_and_do_that_and_another_thing

but_emphasis is_desired here


If you wish to emphasize only a part of a word, it can still be done with asterisks:

perform*complicated*task

do*this*and*do*that*and*another thing

performcomplicatedtask

dothisanddothatandanother thing

Footnotes

Footnotes add a link to a note that are rendered at the end of a Markdown file.

To make a footnote, you need both a reference tag and a separate line (anywhere in the file) with the note content.

Regardless of the tag names, the relative order of the reference tags determines the rendered numbering.

Reference tags can use letters and other characters. Avoid using lowercase w or an underscore (_) in footnote tag names until this bug is resolved.

A footnote reference tag looks like this: [^1]

This reference tag is a mix of letters and numbers. [^footnote-42]

[^1]: This is the text inside a footnote.

[^footnote-42]: This is another footnote.

A footnote reference tag looks like this:1

This reference tag is a mix of letters and numbers.2

Headers

# H1
## H2
### H3
#### H4
##### H5
###### H6

Alternatively, for H1 and H2, an underline-ish style:

Alt-H1
======

Alt-H2
------

GFM extends the standard Markdown standard so that all Markdown-rendered headers automatically get IDs, which can be linked to, except in comments.

On hover, a link to those IDs becomes visible to make it easier to copy the link to the header to use it somewhere else.

The IDs are generated from the content of the header according to the following rules:

  1. All text is converted to lowercase.
  2. All non-word text (such as punctuation or HTML) is removed.
  3. All spaces are converted to hyphens.
  4. Two or more hyphens in a row are converted to one.
  5. If a header with the same ID has already been generated, a unique incrementing number is appended, starting at 1.

Example:

# This header has spaces in it
## This header has a :thumbsup: in it
# This header has Unicode in it: 한글
## This header has spaces in it
### This header has spaces in it
## This header has 3.5 in it (and parentheses)

Would generate the following link IDs:

  1. this-header-has-spaces-in-it
  2. this-header-has-a-in-it
  3. this-header-has-unicode-in-it-한글
  4. this-header-has-spaces-in-it-1
  5. this-header-has-spaces-in-it-2
  6. this-header-has-3-5-in-it-and-parentheses

Note that the emoji processing happens before the header IDs are generated, so the emoji is converted to an image which is then removed from the ID.

Horizontal Rule

It’s very simple to create a horizontal rule, by using three or more hyphens, asterisks, or underscores:

Three or more hyphens,

---

asterisks,

***

or underscores

___

Images

Examples:

Inline-style (hover to see title text):

![alt text](img/markdown_logo.png "Title Text")

Reference-style (hover to see title text):

![alt text1][logo]

[logo]: img/markdown_logo.png "Title Text"

Inline-style (hover to see title text):

alt text

Reference-style (hover to see title text):

alt text

Videos

If this is not rendered correctly, view it in GitLab itself.

Image tags that link to files with a video extension are automatically converted to a video player. The valid video extensions are .mp4, .m4v, .mov, .webm, and .ogv:

Here's a sample video:

![Sample Video](img/markdown_video.mp4)

Here’s a sample video:

Sample Video

Audio

If this is not rendered correctly, view it in GitLab itself.

Similar to videos, link tags for files with an audio extension are automatically converted to an audio player. The valid audio extensions are .mp3, .oga, .ogg, .spx, and .wav:

Here's a sample audio clip:

![Sample Audio](img/markdown_audio.mp3)

Here’s a sample audio clip:

Sample Audio

Inline HTML

To see the Markdown rendered within HTML in the second example, view it in GitLab itself.

You can also use raw HTML in your Markdown, and it usually works pretty well.

See the documentation for HTML::Pipeline’s SanitizationFilter class for the list of allowed HTML tags and attributes. In addition to the default SanitizationFilter allowlist, GitLab allows span, abbr, details and summary elements.

<dl>
  <dt>Definition list</dt>
  <dd>Is something people use sometimes.</dd>

  <dt>Markdown in HTML</dt>
  <dd>Does *not* work **very** well. HTML <em>tags</em> do <b>work</b>, in most cases.</dd>
</dl>
Definition list
Is something people use sometimes.
Markdown in HTML
Does *not* work **very** well. HTML tags do work, in most cases.

It’s still possible to use Markdown inside HTML tags, but only if the lines containing Markdown are separated into their own lines:

<dl>
  <dt>Markdown in HTML</dt>
  <dd>Does *not* work **very** well. HTML tags work, in most cases.</dd>

  <dt>Markdown in HTML</dt>
  <dd>

  Does *not* work **very** well. HTML tags work, in most cases.

  </dd>
</dl>
Markdown in HTML
Does *not* work **very** well. HTML tags work, in most cases.
Markdown in HTML
Does not work very well. HTML tags work, in most cases.

Details and summary

To see the Markdown rendered within HTML in the second example, view it in GitLab itself.

Content can be collapsed using HTML’s <details> and <summary> tags. This is especially useful for collapsing long logs so they take up less screen space.

<p>
<details>
<summary>Click this to collapse/fold.</summary>

These details <em>remain</em> <strong>hidden</strong> until expanded.

<pre><code>PASTE LOGS HERE</code></pre>

</details>
</p>

Click this to collapse/fold. These details remain hidden until expanded.
PASTE LOGS HERE

Markdown inside these tags is supported as well.

Note: If your Markdown isn’t rendering correctly, try adding {::options parse_block_html="true" /} to the top of the page, and add markdown="span" to the opening summary tag like this: <summary markdown="span">.

Remember to leave a blank line after the </summary> tag and before the </details> tag, as shown in the example:

<details>
<summary>Click this to collapse/fold.</summary>

These details _remain_ **hidden** until expanded.

```
PASTE LOGS HERE
```

</details>
Click this to collapse/fold. These details remain hidden until expanded.
PASTE LOGS HERE

Line breaks

A line break is inserted (a new paragraph starts) if the previous text is ended with two newlines, like when you hit Enter twice in a row. If you only use one newline (hit Enter once), the next sentence remains part of the same paragraph. This is useful if you want to keep long lines from wrapping, and keep them editable:

Here's a line for us to start with.

This longer line is separated from the one above by two newlines, so it is a *separate paragraph*.

This line is also a separate paragraph, but...
These lines are only separated by single newlines,
so they *do not break* and just follow the previous lines
in the *same paragraph*.

Here’s a line for us to start with.

This longer line is separated from the one above by two newlines, so it is a separate paragraph.

This line is also a separate paragraph, but… These lines are only separated by single newlines, so they do not break and just follow the previous lines in the same paragraph.

Newlines

GFM adheres to the Markdown specification in how paragraphs and line breaks are handled.

A paragraph is one or more consecutive lines of text, separated by one or more blank lines (two newlines at the end of the first paragraph), as explained above.

If you need more control over line breaks or soft returns, you can add a single line break by ending a line with a backslash, or two or more spaces. Two newlines in a row create a new paragraph, with a blank line in between:

First paragraph.
Another line in the same paragraph.
A third line in the same paragraph, but this time ending with two spaces.{space}{space}
A new line directly under the first paragraph.

Second paragraph.
Another line, this time ending with a backslash.\
A new line due to the previous backslash.

There are two ways to create links, inline-style and reference-style:

- This is an [inline-style link](https://www.google.com)
- This is a [link to a repository file in the same directory](index.md)
- This is a [relative link to a readme one directory higher](../README.md)
- This is a [link that also has title text](https://www.google.com "This link takes you to Google!")

Using header ID anchors:

- This links to [a section on a different Markdown page, using a "#" and the header ID](index.md#overview)
- This links to [a different section on the same page, using a "#" and the header ID](#header-ids-and-links)

Using references:

- This is a [reference-style link, see below][Arbitrary case-insensitive reference text]
- You can [use numbers for reference-style link definitions, see below][1]
- Or leave it empty and use the [link text itself][], see below.

Some text to show that the reference links can follow later.

[arbitrary case-insensitive reference text]: https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/
[1]: https://slashdot.org
[link text itself]: https://www.reddit.com

Using header ID anchors:

Using references:

Some text to show that the reference links can follow later.

Note: Relative links do not allow the referencing of project files in a wiki page, or a wiki page in a project file. The reason for this is that a wiki is always in a separate Git repository in GitLab. For example, [I'm a reference-style link](style) points the link to wikis/style only when the link is inside of a wiki Markdown file.

URL auto-linking

GFM auto-links almost any URL you put into your text:

- https://www.google.com
- https://www.google.com
- ftp://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/
- smb://foo/bar/baz
- irc://irc.freenode.net/
- http://localhost:3000

Lists

Ordered and unordered lists can be created.

For an ordered list, add the number you want the list to start with, like 1., followed by a space, at the start of each line for ordered lists. After the first number, it does not matter what number you use, ordered lists are numbered automatically by vertical order, so repeating 1. for all items in the same list is common. If you start with a number other than 1., it uses that as the first number, and count up from there.

Examples:

1. First ordered list item
2. Another item
   - Unordered sub-list.
1. Actual numbers don't matter, just that it's a number
   1. Ordered sub-list
   1. Next ordered sub-list item
4. And another item.
  1. First ordered list item
  2. Another item
    • Unordered sub-list.
  3. Actual numbers don’t matter, just that it’s a number
    1. Ordered sub-list
    2. Next ordered sub-list item
  4. And another item.

For an unordered list, add a -, * or +, followed by a space, at the start of each line for unordered lists, but you should not use a mix of them.

Unordered lists can:

- use
- minuses

They can also:

* use
* asterisks

They can even:

+ use
+ pluses

Unordered lists can:

  • use
  • minuses

They can also:

  • use
  • asterisks

They can even:

  • use
  • pluses

If a list item contains multiple paragraphs, each subsequent paragraph should be indented to the same level as the start of the list item text.

Example:

1. First ordered list item

   Second paragraph of first item.

1. Another item
  1. First ordered list item

    Second paragraph of first item.

  2. Another item


If the paragraph of the first item is not indented with the proper number of spaces, the paragraph appears outside the list, instead of properly indented under the list item.

Example:

1. First ordered list item

  Paragraph of first item.

1. Another item
  1. First ordered list item

Paragraph of first item.

  1. Another item

Superscripts / Subscripts

Currently, CommonMark and GFM don’t support the superscript syntax ( x^2 ) that Redcarpet does. You can use the standard HTML syntax for superscripts and subscripts:

The formula for water is H<sub>2</sub>O
while the equation for the theory of relativity is E = mc<sup>2</sup>.

The formula for water is H2O while the equation for the theory of relativity is E = mc2.

Tables

Tables are not part of the core Markdown spec, but they are part of GFM.

  1. The first line contains the headers, separated by “pipes” (|).
  2. The second line separates the headers from the cells, and must contain three or more dashes.
  3. The third, and any following lines, contain the cell values.
    • You can’t have cells separated over many lines in the Markdown, they must be kept to single lines, but they can be very long. You can also include HTML <br> tags to force newlines if needed.
    • The cell sizes don’t have to match each other. They are flexible, but must be separated by pipes (|).
    • You can have blank cells.

Example:

| header 1 | header 2 | header 3 |
| ---      |  ------  |---------:|
| cell 1   | cell 2   | cell 3   |
| cell 4 | cell 5 is longer | cell 6 is much longer than the others, but that's ok. It eventually wraps the text when the cell is too large for the display size. |
| cell 7   |          | cell <br> 9 |
| cell 10  | <ul><li> - [ ] Task One </li></ul> | <ul><li> - [ ] Task Two </li><li> - [ ] Task Three </li></ul> |
header 1 header 2 header 3
cell 1 cell 2 cell 3
cell 4 cell 5 is longer cell 6 is much longer than the others, but that’s ok. It eventually wraps the text when the cell is too large for the display size.
cell 7   cell
9
cell 10 <ul><li> - [ ] Task One </li></ul> <ul><li> - [ ] Task Two </li><li> - [ ] Task Three </li></ul>

Additionally, you can choose the alignment of text within columns by adding colons (:) to the sides of the “dash” lines in the second row. This affects every cell in the column.

Note: Within GitLab itself, the headers are always left-aligned in Chrome and Firefox, and centered in Safari.
| Left Aligned | Centered | Right Aligned | Left Aligned | Centered | Right Aligned |
| :---         | :---:    | ---:          | :----------- | :------: | ------------: |
| Cell 1       | Cell 2   | Cell 3        | Cell 4       | Cell 5   | Cell 6        |
| Cell 7       | Cell 8   | Cell 9        | Cell 10      | Cell 11  | Cell 12       |
Left Aligned Centered Right Aligned Left Aligned Centered Right Aligned
Cell 1 Cell 2 Cell 3 Cell 4 Cell 5 Cell 6
Cell 7 Cell 8 Cell 9 Cell 10 Cell 11 Cell 12

Copy from spreadsheet and paste in Markdown

Introduced in GitLab 12.7.

If you’re working in spreadsheet software (for example, Microsoft Excel, Google Sheets, or Apple Numbers), you can copy from a spreadsheet, and GitLab pastes it as a Markdown table. For example, suppose you have the following spreadsheet:

Copy from spreadsheet

Select the cells and copy them to your clipboard. Open a GitLab Markdown entry and paste the spreadsheet:

Paste to Markdown table

References

  1. This is the text inside a footnote. 

  2. This is another footnote.