Geo database replication (GitLab Omnibus)

Note: This is the documentation for the Omnibus GitLab packages. For installations from source, follow the Geo database replication (source) guide.
Note: If your GitLab installation uses external PostgreSQL, the Omnibus roles will not be able to perform all necessary configuration steps. Refer to the section on External PostgreSQL for additional instructions.
Note: The stages of the setup process must be completed in the documented order. Before attempting the steps in this stage, complete all prior stages.

This document describes the minimal steps you have to take in order to replicate your primary GitLab database to a secondary node’s database. You may have to change some values according to your database setup, how big it is, etc.

You are encouraged to first read through all the steps before executing them in your testing/production environment.

PostgreSQL replication

The GitLab primary node where the write operations happen will connect to the primary database server, and the secondary nodes which are read-only will connect to the secondary database servers (which are also read-only).

Note: In database documentation you may see “primary” being referenced as “master” and “secondary” as either “slave” or “standby” server (read-only).

We recommend using PostgreSQL replication slots to ensure that the primary retains all the data necessary for the secondaries to recover. See below for more details.

The following guide assumes that:

  • You are using Omnibus and therefore you are using PostgreSQL 9.6 or later which includes the pg_basebackup tool and improved Foreign Data Wrapper support.
  • You have a primary node already set up (the GitLab server you are replicating from), running Omnibus’ PostgreSQL (or equivalent version), and you have a new secondary server set up with the same versions of the OS, PostgreSQL, and GitLab on all nodes.
  • The IP of the primary server for our examples will be 1.2.3.4, whereas the secondary’s IP will be 5.6.7.8. Note that the primary and secondary servers must be able to communicate over these addresses. More on this in the guide below.
Warning: Geo works with streaming replication. Logical replication is not supported at this time. There is an issue where support is being discussed.

Step 1. Configure the primary server

  1. SSH into your GitLab primary server and login as root:

     sudo -i
    
  2. Execute the command below to define the node as primary Geo node:

     gitlab-ctl set-geo-primary-node
    

    This command will use your defined external_url in /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb.

  3. GitLab 10.4 and up only: Do the following to make sure the gitlab database user has a password defined

    Generate a MD5 hash of the desired password:

     gitlab-ctl pg-password-md5 gitlab
     # Enter password: mypassword
     # Confirm password: mypassword
     # fca0b89a972d69f00eb3ec98a5838484
    

    Edit /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb:

     # Fill with the hash generated by `gitlab-ctl pg-password-md5 gitlab`
     postgresql['sql_user_password'] = 'fca0b89a972d69f00eb3ec98a5838484'
    
     # Every node that runs Unicorn or Sidekiq needs to have the database
     # password specified as below. If you have a high-availability setup, this
     # must be present in all application nodes.
     gitlab_rails['db_password'] = 'mypassword'
    
  4. Omnibus GitLab already has a replication user called gitlab_replicator. You must set the password for this user manually. You will be prompted to enter a password:

     gitlab-ctl set-replication-password
    

    This command will also read the postgresql['sql_replication_user'] Omnibus setting in case you have changed gitlab_replicator username to something else.

    If you are using an external database not managed by Omnibus GitLab, you need to create the replicator user and define a password to it manually. For information on how to create a replication user, refer to the appropriate step in Geo database replication (source).

  5. Configure PostgreSQL to listen on network interfaces

    For security reasons, PostgreSQL does not listen on any network interfaces by default. However, Geo requires the secondary to be able to connect to the primary’s database. For this reason, we need the address of each node. Note: For external PostgreSQL instances, see additional instructions.

    If you are using a cloud provider, you can lookup the addresses for each Geo node through your cloud provider’s management console.

    To lookup the address of a Geo node, SSH in to the Geo node and execute:

     ##
     ## Private address
     ##
     ip route get 255.255.255.255 | awk '{print "Private address:", $NF; exit}'
    
     ##
     ## Public address
     ##
     echo "External address: $(curl --silent ipinfo.io/ip)"
    

    In most cases, the following addresses will be used to configure GitLab Geo:

    Configuration Address
    postgresql['listen_address'] Primary’s public or VPC private address
    postgresql['md5_auth_cidr_addresses'] Secondary’s public or VPC private addresses

    If you are using Google Cloud Platform, SoftLayer, or any other vendor that provides a virtual private cloud (VPC) you can use the secondary’s private address (corresponds to “internal address” for Google Cloud Platform) for postgresql['md5_auth_cidr_addresses'] and postgresql['listen_address'].

    The listen_address option opens PostgreSQL up to network connections with the interface corresponding to the given address. See the PostgreSQL documentation for more details.

    Depending on your network configuration, the suggested addresses may not be correct. If your primary and secondary connect over a local area network, or a virtual network connecting availability zones like Amazon’s VPC or Google’s VPC you should use the secondary’s private address for postgresql['md5_auth_cidr_addresses'].

    Edit /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb and add the following, replacing the IP addresses with addresses appropriate to your network configuration:

     ##
     ## Geo Primary role
     ## - configure dependent flags automatically to enable Geo
     ##
     roles ['geo_primary_role']
    
     ##
     ## Primary address
     ## - replace '1.2.3.4' with the primary public or VPC address
     ##
     postgresql['listen_address'] = '1.2.3.4'
    
     ##
     # Primary and Secondary addresses
     # - replace '1.2.3.4' with the primary public or VPC address
     # - replace '5.6.7.8' with the secondary public or VPC address
     ##
     postgresql['md5_auth_cidr_addresses'] = ['1.2.3.4/32','5.6.7.8/32']
    
     ##
     ## Replication settings
     ## - set this to be the number of Geo secondary nodes you have
     ##
     postgresql['max_replication_slots'] = 1
     # postgresql['max_wal_senders'] = 10
     # postgresql['wal_keep_segments'] = 10
    
     ##
     ## Disable automatic database migrations temporarily
     ## (until PostgreSQL is restarted and listening on the private address).
     ##
     gitlab_rails['auto_migrate'] = false
    
  6. Optional: If you want to add another secondary, the relevant setting would look like:

     postgresql['md5_auth_cidr_addresses'] = ['1.2.3.4/32', '5.6.7.8/32','9.10.11.12/32']
    

    You may also want to edit the wal_keep_segments and max_wal_senders to match your database replication requirements. Consult the PostgreSQL - Replication documentation for more information.

  7. Save the file and reconfigure GitLab for the database listen changes and the replication slot changes to be applied:

     gitlab-ctl reconfigure
    

    Restart PostgreSQL for its changes to take effect:

     gitlab-ctl restart postgresql
    
  8. Re-enable migrations now that PostgreSQL is restarted and listening on the private address.

    Edit /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb and change the configuration to true:

     gitlab_rails['auto_migrate'] = true
    

    Save the file and reconfigure GitLab:

     gitlab-ctl reconfigure
    
  9. Now that the PostgreSQL server is set up to accept remote connections, run netstat -plnt | grep 5432 to make sure that PostgreSQL is listening on port 5432 to the primary server’s private address.

  10. A certificate was automatically generated when GitLab was reconfigured. This will be used automatically to protect your PostgreSQL traffic from eavesdroppers, but to protect against active (“man-in-the-middle”) attackers, the secondary needs a copy of the certificate. Make a copy of the PostgreSQL server.crt file on the primary node by running this command:

     cat ~gitlab-psql/data/server.crt
    

    Copy the output into a clipboard or into a local file. You will need it when setting up the secondary! The certificate is not sensitive data.

Step 2. Configure the secondary server

  1. SSH into your GitLab secondary server and login as root:

     sudo -i
    
  2. Stop application server and Sidekiq

     gitlab-ctl stop unicorn
     gitlab-ctl stop sidekiq
    
    Note: This step is important so we don’t try to execute anything before the node is fully configured.
  3. Check TCP connectivity to the primary’s PostgreSQL server:

     gitlab-rake gitlab:tcp_check[1.2.3.4,5432]
    
    Note: If this step fails, you may be using the wrong IP address, or a firewall may be preventing access to the server. Check the IP address, paying close attention to the difference between public and private addresses and ensure that, if a firewall is present, the secondary is permitted to connect to the primary on port 5432.
  4. Create a file server.crt in the secondary server, with the content you got on the last step of the primary setup:

     editor server.crt
    
  5. Set up PostgreSQL TLS verification on the secondary

    Install the server.crt file:

     install -D -o gitlab-psql -g gitlab-psql -m 0400 -T server.crt ~gitlab-psql/.postgresql/root.crt
    

    PostgreSQL will now only recognize that exact certificate when verifying TLS connections. The certificate can only be replicated by someone with access to the private key, which is only present on the primary node.

  6. Test that the gitlab-psql user can connect to the primary’s database:

     sudo -u gitlab-psql /opt/gitlab/embedded/bin/psql --list -U gitlab_replicator -d "dbname=gitlabhq_production sslmode=verify-ca" -W -h 1.2.3.4
    

    When prompted enter the password you set in the first step for the gitlab_replicator user. If all worked correctly, you should see the list of primary’s databases.

    A failure to connect here indicates that the TLS configuration is incorrect. Ensure that the contents of ~gitlab-psql/data/server.crt on the primary match the contents of ~gitlab-psql/.postgresql/root.crt on the secondary.

  7. Configure PostreSQL to enable FDW support

    This step is similar to how we configured the primary instance. We need to enable this, to enable FDW support, even if using a single node.

    Edit /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb and add the following, replacing the IP addresses with addresses appropriate to your network configuration:

     ##
     ## Geo Secondary role
     ## - configure dependent flags automatically to enable Geo
     ##
     roles ['geo_secondary_role']
    
     ##
     ## Secondary address
     ## - replace '5.6.7.8' with the secondary public or VPC address
     ##
     postgresql['listen_address'] = '5.6.7.8'
     postgresql['md5_auth_cidr_addresses'] = ['5.6.7.8/32']
    
     ##
     ## Database credentials password (defined previously in primary node)
     ## - replicate same values here as defined in primary node
     ##
     postgresql['sql_user_password'] = 'fca0b89a972d69f00eb3ec98a5838484'
     gitlab_rails['db_password'] = 'mypassword'
    
     ##
     ## Enable FDW support for the Geo Tracking Database (improves performance)
     ##
     geo_secondary['db_fdw'] = true
    

    For external PostgreSQL instances, see additional instructions. If you bring a former primary node back online to serve as a secondary node, then you also need to remove roles ['geo_primary_role'] or geo_primary_role['enable'] = true.

  8. Reconfigure GitLab for the changes to take effect:

     gitlab-ctl reconfigure
    
  9. Restart PostgreSQL for the IP change to take effect and Reconfigure again:

     gitlab-ctl restart postgresql
     gitlab-ctl reconfigure
    

    This last reconfigure will provision the FDW configuration and enable it.

Step 3. Initiate the replication process

Below we provide a script that connects the database on the secondary node to the database on the primary node, replicates the database, and creates the needed files for streaming replication.

The directories used are the defaults that are set up in Omnibus. If you have changed any defaults or are using a source installation, configure it as you see fit replacing the directories and paths.

Warning: Make sure to run this on the secondary server as it removes all PostgreSQL’s data before running pg_basebackup.
  1. SSH into your GitLab secondary server and login as root:

     sudo -i
    
  2. Choose a database-friendly name to use for your secondary to use as the replication slot name. For example, if your domain is secondary.geo.example.com, you may use secondary_example as the slot name as shown in the commands below.

  3. Execute the command below to start a backup/restore and begin the replication CAUTION: Warning: Each Geo secondary must have its own unique replication slot name. Using the same slot name between two secondaries will break PostgreSQL replication.

     gitlab-ctl replicate-geo-database --slot-name=secondary_example --host=1.2.3.4
    

    When prompted, enter the plaintext password you set up for the gitlab_replicator user in the first step.

    This command also takes a number of additional options. You can use --help to list them all, but here are a couple of tips: - If PostgreSQL is listening on a non-standard port, add --port= as well. - If your database is too large to be transferred in 30 minutes, you will need to increase the timeout, e.g., --backup-timeout=3600 if you expect the initial replication to take under an hour. - Pass --sslmode=disable to skip PostgreSQL TLS authentication altogether (e.g., you know the network path is secure, or you are using a site-to-site VPN). This is not safe over the public Internet! - You can read more details about each sslmode in the PostgreSQL documentation; the instructions above are carefully written to ensure protection against both passive eavesdroppers and active “man-in-the-middle” attackers. - Change the --slot-name to the name of the replication slot to be used on the primary database. The script will attempt to create the replication slot automatically if it does not exist. - If you’re repurposing an old server into a Geo secondary, you’ll need to add --force to the command line. - When not in a production machine you can disable backup step if you really sure this is what you want by adding --skip-backup

  4. Verify that the secondary is configured correctly and that the primary is reachable:

     gitlab-rake gitlab:geo:check
    

The replication process is now complete.

External PostgreSQL instances

For installations using external PostgreSQL instances, the geo_primary_role and geo_secondary_role includes configuration changes that must be applied manually.

The geo_primary_role makes configuration changes to pg_hba.conf and postgresql.conf on the primary:

##
## Geo Primary
## - pg_hba.conf
##
host    replication gitlab_replicator <trusted secondary IP>/32     md5
##
## Geo Primary Role
## - postgresql.conf
##
sql_replication_user = gitlab_replicator
wal_level = hot_standby
max_wal_senders = 10
wal_keep_segments = 50
max_replication_slots = 1 # number of secondary instances
hot_standby = on

The geo_secondary_role makes configuration changes to postgresql.conf and enables the Geo Log Cursor (geo_logcursor) and secondary tracking database on the secondary. The PostgreSQL settings for this database it adds to the default settings:

##
## Geo Secondary Role
## - postgresql.conf
##
wal_level = hot_standby
max_wal_senders = 10
wal_keep_segments = 10
hot_standby = on

Tracking Database for the Secondary nodes

Note: You only need to follow the steps below if you are not using the managed PostgreSQL from a Omnibus GitLab package.

Geo secondary nodes use a tracking database to keep track of replication status and recover automatically from some replication issues.

This is a separate PostgreSQL installation that can be configured to use FDW to connect with the secondary database for improved performance.

To enable an external PostgreSQL instance as tracking database, follow the instructions below:

  1. Edit /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb with the connection params and credentials

     # note this is shared between both databases,
     # make sure you define the same password in both
     gitlab_rails['db_password'] = 'mypassword'
    
     geo_secondary['db_host'] = '2.3.4.5' # change to the correct public IP
     geo_secondary['db_port'] = 5431      # change to the correct port
     geo_secondary['db_fdw'] = true       # enable FDW
     geo_postgresql['enable'] = false     # don't use internal managed instance
    
  2. Reconfigure GitLab for the changes to take effect:

     gitlab-ctl reconfigure
    
  3. Run the tracking database migrations:

     gitlab-rake geo:db:migrate
    
  4. Configure the PostgreSQL FDW connection and credentials:

    Save the script below in a file, ex. /tmp/geo_fdw.sh and modify the connection params to match your environment. Execute it to set up the FDW connection.

     #!/bin/bash
    
     # Secondary Database connection params:
     DB_HOST="5.6.7.8" # change to the public IP or VPC private IP
     DB_NAME="gitlabhq_production"
     DB_USER="gitlab"
     DB_PORT="5432"
    
     # Tracking Database connection params:
     GEO_DB_HOST="2.3.4.5" # change to the public IP or VPC private IP
     GEO_DB_NAME="gitlabhq_geo_production"
     GEO_DB_USER="gitlab_geo"
     GEO_DB_PORT="5432"
    
     query_exec () {
       gitlab-psql -h $GEO_DB_HOST -d $GEO_DB_NAME -p $GEO_DB_PORT -c "${1}"
     }
    
     query_exec "CREATE EXTENSION postgres_fdw;"
     query_exec "CREATE SERVER gitlab_secondary FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER postgres_fdw OPTIONS (host '${DB_HOST}', dbname '${DB_NAME}', port '${DB_PORT}');"
     query_exec "CREATE USER MAPPING FOR ${GEO_DB_USER} SERVER gitlab_secondary OPTIONS (user '${DB_USER}');"
     query_exec "CREATE SCHEMA gitlab_secondary;"
     query_exec "GRANT USAGE ON FOREIGN SERVER gitlab_secondary TO ${GEO_DB_USER};"
    
    Note: The script template above uses gitlab-psql as it’s intended to be executed from the Geo machine, but you can change it to psql and run it from any machine that has access to the database.
  5. Restart GitLab

     gitlab-ctl restart
    
  6. Populate the FDW tables

     gitlab-rake geo:db:refresh_foreign_tables
    

PGBouncer support (optional)

PGBouncer may be used with GitLab Geo to pool PostgreSQL connections. We recommend using PGBouncer if you use GitLab in a high-availability configuration with a cluster of nodes supporting a Geo primary and another cluster of nodes supporting a Geo secondary. For more information, see the Omnibus HA documentation.

For a Geo secondary to work properly with PGBouncer in front of the database, it will need a separate read-only user to make PostgreSQL FDW queries work:

  1. On the primary Geo database, enter the PostgreSQL on the console as an admin user. If you are using an Omnibus-managed database, log onto the primary node that is running the PostgreSQL database:

      sudo -u gitlab-psql /opt/gitlab/embedded/bin/psql -h /var/opt/gitlab/postgresql gitlabhq_production
    
  2. Then create the read-only user:

     -- NOTE: Use the password defined earlier
     CREATE USER gitlab_geo_fdw WITH password 'mypassword';
     GRANT CONNECT ON DATABASE gitlabhq_production to gitlab_geo_fdw;
     GRANT USAGE ON SCHEMA public TO gitlab_geo_fdw;
     GRANT SELECT ON ALL TABLES IN SCHEMA public TO gitlab_geo_fdw;
     GRANT SELECT ON ALL SEQUENCES IN SCHEMA public TO gitlab_geo_fdw;
    
     -- Tables created by "gitlab" should be made read-only for "gitlab_geo_fdw"
     -- automatically.
     ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES FOR USER gitlab IN SCHEMA public GRANT SELECT ON TABLES TO gitlab_geo_fdw;
     ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES FOR USER gitlab IN SCHEMA public GRANT SELECT ON SEQUENCES TO gitlab_geo_fdw;
    
  3. On the Geo secondary nodes, change /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb:

     geo_postgresql['fdw_external_user'] = 'gitlab_geo_fdw'
    
  4. Save the file and reconfigure GitLab for the changes to be applied:

     gitlab-ctl reconfigure
    

MySQL replication

MySQL replication is not supported for Geo.

Troubleshooting

Read the troubleshooting document.