API styleguide

This styleguide recommends best practices for API development.

Instance variables

Please do not use instance variables, there is no need for them (we don’t need to access them as we do in Rails views), local variables are fine.

Entities

Always use an Entity to present the endpoint’s payload.

Documentation

API endpoints must come with documentation, unless it is internal or behind a feature flag. The docs should be in the same merge request, or, if strictly necessary, in a follow-up with the same milestone as the original merge request.

Methods and parameters description

Every method must be described using the Grape DSL (see https://gitlab.com/gitlab-org/gitlab/blob/master/lib/api/environments.rb for a good example):

  • desc for the method summary. You should pass it a block for additional details such as:
    • The GitLab version when the endpoint was added. If it is behind a feature flag, mention that instead: This feature is gated by the :feature_flag_symbol feature flag.
    • If the endpoint is deprecated, and if so, when will it be removed
  • params for the method parameters. This acts as description, validation, and coercion of the parameters

A good example is as follows:

desc 'Get all broadcast messages' do
  detail 'This feature was introduced in GitLab 8.12.'
  success Entities::BroadcastMessage
end
params do
  optional :page,     type: Integer, desc: 'Current page number'
  optional :per_page, type: Integer, desc: 'Number of messages per page'
end
get do
  messages = BroadcastMessage.all

  present paginate(messages), with: Entities::BroadcastMessage
end

Declared parameters

Grape allows you to access only the parameters that have been declared by your params block. It filters out the parameters that have been passed, but are not allowed.

https://github.com/ruby-grape/grape#declared

Exclude parameters from parent namespaces

By default declared(params)includes parameters that were defined in all parent namespaces.

https://github.com/ruby-grape/grape#include-parent-namespaces

In most cases you will want to exclude parameters from the parent namespaces:

declared(params, include_parent_namespaces: false)

When to use declared(params)

You should always use declared(params) when you pass the parameters hash as arguments to a method call.

For instance:

# bad
User.create(params) # imagine the user submitted `admin=1`... :)

# good
User.create(declared(params, include_parent_namespaces: false).to_h)

Note: declared(params) return a Hashie::Mash object, on which you will have to call .to_h.

But we can use params[key] directly when we access single elements.

For instance:

# good
Model.create(foo: params[:foo])

Using HTTP status helpers

For non-200 HTTP responses, use the provided helpers in lib/api/helpers.rb to ensure correct behaviour (not_found!, no_content! etc.). These will throw inside Grape and abort the execution of your endpoint.

For DELETE requests, you should also generally use the destroy_conditionally! helper which by default returns a 204 No Content response on success, or a 412 Precondition Failed response if the given If-Unmodified-Since header is out of range. This helper calls #destroy on the passed resource, but you can also implement a custom deletion method by passing a block.

Using API path helpers in GitLab Rails codebase

Because we support installing GitLab under a relative URL, one must take this into account when using API path helpers generated by Grape. Any such API path helper usage must be in wrapped into the expose_path helper call.

For instance:

- endpoint = expose_path(api_v4_projects_issues_related_merge_requests_path(id: @project.id, issue_iid: @issue.iid))

Internal API

The internal API is documented for internal use. Please keep it up to date so we know what endpoints different components are making use of.

Avoiding N+1 problems

In order to avoid N+1 problems that are common when returning collections of records in an API endpoint, we should use eager loading.

A standard way to do this within the API is for models to implement a scope called with_api_entity_associations that will preload the associations and data returned in the API. An example of this scope can be seen in the Issue model.

In situations where the same model has multiple entities in the API (for instance, UserBasic, User and UserPublic) you should use your discretion with applying this scope. It may be that you optimize for the most basic entity, with successive entities building upon that scope.

The with_api_entity_associations scope will also automatically preload data for Todo targets when returned in the Todos API.

For more context and discussion about preloading see this merge request which introduced the scope.

Verifying with tests

When an API endpoint returns collections, always add a test to verify that the API endpoint does not have an N+1 problem, now and in the future. We can do this using ActiveRecord::QueryRecorder.

Example:

def make_api_request
  get api('/foo', personal_access_token: pat)
end

it 'avoids N+1 queries', :request_store do
  # Firstly, record how many PostgreSQL queries the endpoint will make
  # when it returns a single record
  create_record

  control = ActiveRecord::QueryRecorder.new { make_api_request }

  # Now create a second record and ensure that the API does not execute
  # any more queries than before
  create_record

  expect { make_api_request }.not_to exceed_query_limit(control)
end

Testing

When writing tests for new API endpoints, consider using a schema fixture located in /spec/fixtures/api/schemas. You can expect a response to match a given schema:

expect(response).to match_response_schema('merge_requests')

Also see verifying N+1 performance in tests.